Digital Methods in Behavioral Research
Compliance with EMA in Smoking Cessation Trial
Time Course, Predictors, and Experiments with Payment Contingencies
We will be discussing declines in EMA compliance that we observed within our smoking cessation trial over the 8 weeks EMA assessment period. These declines have been documented in EMA studies outside the smoking literature, but are typically assessed over shorter periods. We conducted two studies within the smoking cessation trial. Study 1 characterized the time course of EMA compliance rates over the 8 week assessment period and which participant characteristics (e.g., age, income) and study parameters (e.g., phone used, assessment specifications) predicted overall EMA compliance and interacted with EMA compliance decline over time. Study 2 introduced a manipulation to the EMA payments in a subset of participants to determine if altering the payment contingencies improved compliance as participants moved later into the EMA period. Participants either received standard payment ($1 per survey paid every 1-2 weeks), higher payment ($2 per survey paid every 1-2 weeks), or frequent payment ($1 per survey paid every 2-3 days). We will discuss the results of these studies and possible ways to improve compliance through early identification of non-compliance, payment, and addressing technical problems.
Larry W. Hawk PhD
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
Dr. Hawk’s ongoing research includes:
EVarQuit. This ongoing NCI-funded randomized controlled trial not only extends our evaluation of an extinction-learning approach to improve treatment outcome but also provides tests of candidate treatment mechanisms. To accomplish the latter, all 320 participants complete two lab sessions evaluating changes in cigarette and food reinforcement and craving, 9 weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and provide repeated samples to assess the time course of medication (varenicline) levels and its role in treatment response. Collaborators include Drs Martin Mahoney, Stephen Tiffany, Craig Colder, Rachel Tyndale, Jennifer Wray, and Julie Gass. Find out more at quitforgoodwny.com. A CTSA-funded supplement to this trial is evaluating two promising reinforcement approaches for maintaining EMA adherence in the trial.
#2 The Relationship of Mental Co-morbidities with Glycemic Control in People with Diabetes Mellitus
Tuesday July 28th, 2020, 12.30-1.30pm ET
Negative interrelationships between diabetes and depression/affective comorbidity with potentially impaired self-management and glucose control, as well as increased risks of long-term complications in affected people, have been in the focus of psychological diabetes research for several decades. Although elevated risks of vascular complications were established in those with T2DM and co-morbid depression, and some evidence suggests the same for T1DM too, the pathways mediating affective problems into adverse long-term health outcomes are not sufficiently understood. Generally, behavioral (i.e. less optimal health behavior and glucose management in those with depression leading to less optimal glycemic and health outcomes) and biological pathways (i.e. physiological mechanisms such as chronic systemic inflammation and stress reactivity/HPA axis activation affecting glucose metabolism and/or creating pathogenic effects on cells and tissues) are discussed.
Studies have mostly focussed on associations between co-morbid affective conditions in T1DM/T2DM with self-management behavior and glycemic outcome (HbA1c). However, the evidence is not conclusive with diverse and inconsistent findings across studies and study populations (e.g. T1DM/T2DM etc.). It appears that a more precise, micro-analytic approach analyzing the interrelationship between mood and glucose over time – including the mediating behavioral and physiological mechanism – may be required for better understanding impacts of co-morbid affective conditions on diabetes-related health outcomes.
The DIA-LINK study is a prospective observational study of affective co-morbidities in T1DM making use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of moods, stress aspects and diabetes problems in daily life as well as other important variables regarding depression and/or diabetes-specific distress. Participants were assessed using the mEMA app up to four times daily over four weeks while glucose levels were simultaneously collected using a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system.
Additionally, heart rate and activity measures were collected via a wearable tracker. The participants were enrolled based on their affiliation to groups of people with or without elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥ 22) and/or diabetes distress (PAID score ≥ 40) at baseline; this way a 2×2-group comparison design was developed, warranting that people with none, either one solely or both affective conditions are included in the sample. A follow-up assessment of long-term glucose control (HbA1c) and psychological outcomes (assessed using standard questionnaires) three month after baseline completes the data collection. The data collection was finished in July 2020, and the analyses have now begun.
The webinar presentation shall inform about the study aims and methods using EMA assessment and activity tracking using the mEMA app as well as CGM of glucose levels in diabetes. Preliminary data from the first DIA-LINK study will be presented to provide an understanding of this new research approach in the field of diabetes psychology.
Andreas Schmitt, PhD
Andreas Schmitt is a post-doctoral researcher at the Research Institute of the Diabetes Academy Mergentheim, Diabetes Center Mergentheim (DZM), Germany.
Research interests include affective conditions and distress in T1 and T2 diabetes; psychological factors re diabetes self-care and health behavior; treatment programs for depression and distress; PROMs.
He is also affiliated with the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) and the Dpt. of Clinical Psychology, Ulm University.
#1: Ecological Sampling of Affect, Social Context and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors
Insights from the Biomarkers and Experiences Relationship Study at Brown University
For adolescents hospitalized for suicidal thoughts and behaviors, the transition from inpatient to the home environment is a high risk time for repeated attempts, re-hospitalization, and even death by suicide. However, most research aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to this risk is implemented retrospectively, resulting in a host of biases in reporting and preventing treatment developers from fully capitalizing on intervention efforts that could be implemented in the real world after adolescents leave inpatient.
Our research (R01MH105379, PI Nugent) used ecological sampling methods to assess adolescent affect, social experiences, and suicidal thoughts and behaviors in real time over the course of 3 weeks following discharge from inpatient hospitalization. Preliminary analyses support the importance of understanding dynamic affect in the moment, with ecological momentary assessment (mEMA) reported higher negative affect, anger/irritability found to be associated with suicidal ideation and positive affect found to be protective. Nuances of this work and clinical implications for translation to just in time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) will be briefly described.
Nicole Nugent PhD
Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine
Nicole Nugent, PhD is an Associate Professor in the Departments of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Pediatrics, and Emergency Medicine at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and is a child clinical psychologist at Hasbro Children’s Hospital. Dr. Nugent is Director of the Rhode Island Resilience Project and Associate Director of the Stress Trauma and Resilience (STAR) Institute, positions aimed at furthering the field of traumatic stress through research, training, and community outreach. Dr. Nugent serves as Director of Resilience and Psychological Services at the Hasbro Pediatric Refugee Clinic, a role that informs research efforts that permit translation to intervention across diverse populations.